1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (2023)

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    Charles Stangor and Jennifer

    Learning Objectives

    • Explain how psychology changed from a philosophical discipline to a scientific one.
    • Name some of the most important questions that concern psychologists.
    • Outline the basic schools of psychology and how each school has contributed to psychology.

    In this section, we will review the history of psychology, focusing on the important questions psychologists ask and the main approaches (or schools) of psychological research. The schools of psychology that we will review are summarized in Table 1.3, "The Major Approaches (Schools) to Psychology," while Table 1.4, "History of Psychology," presents a chronology of some of the most important psychologists, beginning with the first Greek philosophers and extends to the present day. Table 1.3 and Table 1.4 represent a selection of the most important schools and individuals; to mention all approaches and all the psychologists who have contributed to the field is not possible in one chapter. The approaches that psychologists have used to assess the issues that interest them have changed dramatically throughout the history of psychology. Perhaps most importantly, as the technology available to study human behavior has improved, the field has steadily moved away from speculation about behavior toward a more objective and scientific approach (Benjamin & Baker, 2004). There has also been an influx of women on the field. Although most of the early psychologists were men, now the majority of psychologists, including the presidents of major psychological organizations, are women.

    Table 1.3 Psychology's most important approaches (schools).
    school of psychology Description important business partners
    Structuralism It uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements or "structures" of the psychological experience. Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener
    functionalism Try to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess. William James
    psychodynamic It focuses on the role that our unconscious thoughts, feelings, memories and early childhood experiences play in determining behaviour. Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson
    behaviorism From the premise that it is not possible to study the mind objectively, psychologists must limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner
    Cognitive The study of mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment. Hermann Ebbinghaus, Sir Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget
    Socio-cultural The study of how social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior. Fritz Heider, Leon Festinger and Stanley Schachter

    Although most of the early psychologists were men, women are increasingly contributing to psychology. Here are some examples:

    • 1968: Mary Jean Wright became the first female president of the Canadian Psychological Association.
    • 1970: Virginia Douglas became the second female president of the Canadian Psychological Association.
    • 1972: The Underground Symposium was held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After their individual papers were rejected by the program committee and then a symposium, a group of six graduate students and non-tenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass, held an independent research symposium showcasing the work being done in the psychology of women. .
    • 1976: Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women grundlægges.
    • 1987: Janet Stoppard var formand for Women's and Mental Health Committee i Canadian Mental Health Association.

    Although it cannot capture all the important psychologists, the following timeline shows some of the most important contributors to the history of psychology. (Adapted by J. Walinga.)

    Table 1.4 History of psychology.
    Given Psychologist(s) Description
    428 and 347 a. Plato Greek philosopher who advocated the role of nature in psychological development.
    384 and 432 a. C. Aristotle Greek philosopher who defended the role of care in psychological development.
    1588 to 1679 EC Thomas Hobbes English philosopher.
    1596 and 1650 RenEsDescartes French philosopher.
    1632 and 1704 John Locke English philosopher.
    1712 to 1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau French philosopher.
    1801 to 1887 Gustav Fechner German experimental psychologist who developed the idea of ​​"just-noticeable-difference" (JND), which is considered the first empirical psychological measurement.
    1809 to 1882 charles darwin British naturalist whose theory of natural selection influenced the functionalist school and the field of evolutionary psychology.
    1832 to 1920 Wilhelm Wundt German psychologist who opened one of the first psychology laboratories and helped develop structuralism.
    1842 to 1910 William James American psychologist who opened one of the first psychology laboratories and helped develop the field of functionalism.
    1849 to 1936 Ivan Pavlov Russian psychologist whose experiments with learning led to the principles of classical conditioning.
    1850 to 1909 Hermann Ebbinghaus German psychologist who studied people's ability to remember lists of nonsense syllables under various conditions.
    1856 to 1939 Sigmund Freud Austrian psychologist who founded the field of psychodynamic psychology.
    1867 to 1927 Edward Bradford Titchener American psychologist who contributed to structuralism.
    1878 to 1958 Juan B Watson American psychologist who contributed to the field of behaviorism.
    1886 to 1969 Sir Frédéric Bartlett British psychologist who studied the cognitive and social processes of memory.
    1896 to 1980 Jean Piaget Swiss psychologist who developed an important theory of cognitive development in children.
    1904 and 1990 BF Skinner American psychologist who contributed to the school of behaviorism.
    1926 and 1993 Donald Broadbent British cognitive psychologist who pioneered the study of attention.
    20th and 21st century Linda Bartoshuk; Daniel Kahneman; Isabel Loftus; Jorge Miller. American psychologists who contributed to the cognitive school of psychology by studying learning, memory, and judgment. An important contribution is to advance neuroscience. Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on psychological decision making.
    1850 Dorotea Dix Canadian psychologist known for his contributions to mental health and opened one of the first psychiatric hospitals in Halifax, New Brunswick.
    1880 Guillermo Lyall; james baldwin Canadian psychologists who wrote the first psychology texts and created the first Canadian psychology laboratory at the University of Toronto.
    1950 James Olds; Brenda Milner; Wilder Penfield; Donald Heb; whole cash Canadian psychologists who contributed to neurological psychology and opened the Montreal Neurological Institute.
    1960 Alberto Bandura Canadian psychologist who developed "social learning theory" with his studies of the Bobo doll, illustrating the impact of observation and interaction on learning.
    1970 his silk Canadian psychologist who contributed significantly to the field of stress psychology.

    Although psychology has changed dramatically throughout its history, the most important questions that psychologists address have remained constant. Some of these questions follow, and we will discuss them both in this chapter and in subsequent chapters:

    • Nature versus nurture.Are the genes or the environment the most influential in determining the behavior of individuals and in explaining the differences between people? Most scientists now agree that both genes and environment play a critical role in most people's behavior, yet we still have much to learn about how nature (our biological makeup) and parenting (the experiences we have during of our lives) work together (Harris, 1998; Pinker, 2002).The proportion of observed characteristic differences between people (for example, in terms of height, intelligence or optimism) that are due to genetics.is known astrait heredity, and we will make a lot of use of this expression in the following chapters. We will see, for example, that the heritability of intelligence is very high (about 0.85 out of 1.0) and that the heritability of extraversion is about 0.50. But we will also see that nature and nurture interact in complex ways, making the question "Is it nature or nurture?" very difficult to answer.
    • Free will versus determinism.This question asks the extent to which people have control over their own actions. Are we products of our environment, governed by forces beyond our control, or are we able to choose the behavior we employ? Most of us like to believe in free will, that we can do whatever we want, for example, that we can get up right now and go fishing. And our legal system is based on the concept of free will; we punish criminals because we believe they have a choice over their behavior and freely choose to obey the law. However, as we will discuss later in this section's research focus, recent research has suggested that we may have less control over our own behavior than we think (Wegner, 2002).
    • Accuracy vs Inaccuracy.To what extent are people good information processors? Although people appear to be good enough to understand the world around them and make decent decisions (Fiske, 2003), they are far from perfect. Human judgment is sometimes compromised by inaccuracies in our thinking styles and by our motivations and emotions. For example, our judgment can be influenced by our desires for material wealth and to see ourselves in a positive light, and by emotional reactions to events that happen to us. Many studies have examined decision-making in crisis situations such as natural disasters, human errors, or criminal acts, such as the Tylenol poisoning, the Maple Leaf meat listeriosis outbreak, the SARS epidemic, or the Lac-Mégantic train wreck. (Figure 1.2). .

    1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (2)

    Figure 1.2 Lac-Mégantic derailment. Psychologists study the causes of misjudgments, such as those made by managers like the three criminally charged in connection with the Lac-Mégantic train derailment in 2013. This photograph was taken from a Sûreté du Québec helicopter on the day of the derailment.

    • Conscious versus unconscious processing.To what extent are we aware of our own actions and their causes, and to what extent is our behavior caused by influences of which we are not aware? Many of the major theories in psychology, from Freudian psychodynamic theories to contemporary work in cognitive psychology, posit that much of our behavior is determined by variables of which we are unaware.
    • Differences vs Similarities.To what extent are we all the same and to what extent are we different? For example, are there basic psychological and personality differences between men and women, or are men and women generally the same? And what about people from different ethnicities and cultures? Are people around the world generally the same, or are they influenced by their backgrounds and environments in different ways? Personality, social and cross-cultural psychologists try to answer these classic questions.

    first psychologists

    The earliest psychologists we know of are the Greek philosophers Plato (428-347 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC). These philosophers (see Figure 1.3) asked many of the same questions that psychologists do today; for example, they questioned the distinction between nature and nurture and the existence of free will. Regarding the former, Plato argued on the side of nature, believing that certain forms of knowledge are innate or innate, while Aristotle was more on the side of nurture, believing that every child is born a "blank slate" (Latin for , - onetaste buds), and that knowledge is mainly acquired through learning and experience.

    1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (3)

    Figure 1.3 Early psychologists. The first psychologists were the Greek philosophers Plato (left) and Aristotle (right). Plato believed that much knowledge was innate, while Aristotle believed that every child was born as a "blank slate" and that knowledge was acquired primarily through learning and experience.

    European philosophers continued to ask these fundamental questions throughout the Renaissance. For example, the French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650) also considered the question of free will, arguing in favor of it and believing that the mind controls the body through the pineal gland in the brain (an idea that made sense at the time). but later proved to be wrong). Descartes also believed in the existence of innate natural abilities. A scientist as well as a philosopher, Descartes dissected animals and was one of the first to understand that nerves controlled muscles. He also addressed the relationship between the mind (the mental aspects of life) and the body (the physical aspects of life). Descartes believed in the principle ofdualism:that the mind is fundamentally different from the mechanical body. Other European philosophers, including Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679), John Locke (1632–1704), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), also weighed in on these questions. The basic problem these philosophers faced was that they had few methods to determine their claims. Most philosophers did not research these questions, partly because they did not yet know how to do so, and partly because they were not sure that it was possible to study human experience objectively. But dramatic changes occurred during the 19th century with the help of the first two research psychologists: the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), who developed a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, and the American psychologist William James (1842-1910), who founded a psychology laboratory at Harvard University.

    Structuralism: introspection and awareness of subjective experience

    Wundt's research in his Leipzig laboratory focused on the nature of consciousness itself. Wundt and his students believed that it was possible to analyze the basic elements of the mind and scientifically classify our conscious experiences. Wundt started the field known asstructuralism,a school of psychology whose goal was to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience. His goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of sensations, similar to the periodic table of elements that had recently been created in chemistry. The structuralists used the method tointrospectiontry to create a map of the elements of consciousness.introspectionIt includesasked research participants to describe exactly what they experience while working on mental taskssuch as seeing colors, reading a page in a book, or solving a math problem. For example, a participant reading a book might report seeing some black and colored straight and curved marks on a white background. In other studies, structuralists used newly invented reaction time instruments to systematically assess not only what participants were thinking, but also how long it took them to do so. Wundt found that it took people longer to report which sound they had just heard than to simply respond that they had heard the sound. These studies marked the first time that researchers realized that there is a differencesensationof a stimulus andperceptionof that stimulus, and the idea of ​​using reaction times to study mental events has now become a mainstay of cognitive psychology.

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    Figure 1.4 Wundt and Titchener. Wilhelm Wundt (seated left) and Edward Titchener (right) helped create the structuralist school of psychology. His goal was to classify the elements of sensation through introspection.

    Perhaps the best known of the structuralists was Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927). Titchener was a student of Wundt, who came to the United States in the late 19th century and founded a laboratory at Cornell University (Figure 1.4). (Titchener was later rejected by McGill University (1903). Perhaps he was ahead of his time; Brenda Milner first opened the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1950.) In their research using introspection, Titchener and his students claimed to have identified more than 40,000 sensations , including those related to sight, hearing and taste. An important aspect of the structuralist approach was that it was rigorous and scientific. The research marked the beginning of psychology as a science because it showed that mental events could be quantified. But the structuralists also discovered the limitations of introspection. Even highly trained research participants were often unable to report their subjective experiences. When participants were asked to do simple math problems, they were able to do them easily, but they could not easily answer how they did them. Thus, structuralists were the first to realize the importance of unconscious processes: that many important aspects of human psychology occur outside of our awareness, and that psychologists cannot expect research participants to be able to accurately report on all of their experiences.

    Functionalism and evolutionary psychology

    Unlike Wundt, who sought to understand the nature of consciousness, William James and the other members of thefunctionalism schoolsucceededunderstand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess(Hunt, 1993). For James, one's thought was relevant only to one's behavior. As he put it in his psychology textbook: "My thought is first and last and always for the sake of my action" (James, 1890). James and the other members of the functionalist school (Figure 1.5) were influenced by Charles Darwin (1809–1882).Theory of natural selection, Which oneproposed that the physical characteristics of animals and humans evolved because they were useful or functional. Functionalists believed that Darwin's theory also applied to psychological characteristics. Just as some animals have developed strong muscles that enable them to run fast, the human brain, functionalists believed, must have adapted to fill a special role in the human experience.

    1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (5)

    Figure 1.5 Functionalist School. The functionalist school of psychology, founded by the American psychologist William James (left), was influenced by the work of Charles Darwin (right).

    Although functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, its basic tenets have been absorbed into psychology and continue to influence it in many ways. The work of the functionalists has developed withinEvolutionary Psychology,a branch of psychology that applies Darwinian theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior(Dennett, 1995; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Evolutionary psychology accepts the basic assumption of functionalists, namely that many human psychological systems, including memory, emotion, and personality, serve important adaptive functions. As we will see in the next few chapters, evolutionary psychologists use evolutionary theory to understand many different patterns of behavior, including romantic attraction, stereotypes and prejudices, and even the causes of many psychological disorders. A key component of the ideas of evolutionary psychology isphysical condition.physical conditionrefers tothe extent to which having a given trait helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other members of the species who do not have the trait. Fitter organisms pass their genes on to subsequent generations more successfully, making fitness-producing traits more likely to become part of the organism's nature than non-fitness-producing traits. For example, it has been argued that the feeling of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are fitter than those who do not. According to this idea, the experience of jealousy makes men more likely to protect their partners and protect themselves from rivals, thus increasing their reproductive success (Buss, 2000). Despite its importance in psychological theorizing, evolutionary psychology also has some limitations. One problem is that many of their predictions are extremely difficult to test. Unlike fossils, which are used to understand the physical evolution of species, we cannot know what psychological traits our ancestors did or did not possess; we can only speculate on this. Because it is difficult to test evolutionary theories directly, it is always possible that the explanations we employ are invented a posteriori to account for the observed data (Gould and Lewontin, 1979). However, the evolutionary approach is important to psychology because it provides logical explanations for why we have many psychological characteristics.

    (Video) A Brief History of Psychology: From Plato to Pavlov

    Psychodynamic psychology

    Perhaps the most familiar school of psychology to the general publicpsychodynamic approachto the understanding of behavior, defended by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and his followers.psychodynamic psychologyIt is aapproach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings and memories. Freud (Figure 1.6) developed his theories of behavior through extensive analysis of the patients he treated in his private clinical practice. Freud believed that many of the problems his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that they could no longer remember.

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    Figure 1.6 Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud and the other psychodynamic psychologists believed that many of our thoughts and feelings are unconscious. Psychotherapy was designed to help patients recover and confront their "lost" memories.

    Freud's ideas were expanded upon by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung (1875–1961), Alfred Adler (1870–1937), Karen Horney (1855–1952), and Erik Erikson (1902–1994). These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient whose unconscious impulses can be recalled, especially through a thorough and thorough exploration of the person's early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. These scans arerevealed through talk therapy and dream analysis in a process called psychoanalysis. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily professionals who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. Although they did little research on their ideas, and although later more sophisticated tests of their theories did not always support their propositions, psychodynamics has nevertheless had a significant impact on psychology and indeed on thinking about human behavior in general. Moore & Fine, 1995). The importance of the unconscious in human behavior, the idea that early childhood experiences are critical, and the concept of therapy as a way to improve human life are all ideas that stem from the psychodynamic approach and remain. center for psychology.

    Behaviorism and the question of free will

    Although different in focus, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind. Psychologists associated with the schoolbehaviorismThey were, on the other hand, partly responding to the difficulties psychologists encountered when trying to use introspection to understand behavior.behaviorismesa school of psychology based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore psychologists must limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a black box in which stimuli are sent and responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what is going on inside the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what is going on inside the mind. Furthermore, behavioral scientists believe that it is possible to develop learning laws that can explain all behavior. The first behaviorist was the American psychologist John B. Watson (1878-1958). Watson was greatly influenced by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), who discovered that dogs salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food. Watson and the other behaviorists began to use these ideas to explain how events were experienced by humans and other organisms in their environment.stimuli) could produce specific behavior (response). For example, in Pavlov's researchstimulus(either the food or, after learning, the tone) would produceresponseof salivation in dogs. In his research, Watson found that systematically exposing a child to fearful stimuli in the presence of objects that did not themselves evoke fear could cause the child to respond with fearful behavior to the presence of the objects (Watson & Rayner, 1920; Beck, Levinson, & Irons, 2009). In the best known of his studies, an eight-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as a subject. Here is a summary of the results: The child was placed in the middle of a room; A white lab rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. The boy showed no fear of the rat. In subsequent experiments, the researchers made a loud noise behind Albert's back by hitting a steel bar with a hammer each time the baby touched the rat. The boy cried when he heard the noise. After several pairings of the two stimuli, the child was shown the rat again. Now, however, he was crying and trying to get away from the rat. According to the behaviorist approach, the child had learned to associate the white rat with a loud noise that triggered crying.

    1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (7)

    Figure 1.7 Rails. B. F. Skinner was a member of the behaviorist school of psychology. He argued that free will is an illusion and that all behavior is determined by environmental factors.

    The most famous behaviorist was Burrhus Frederick (B.F.) Skinner (1904-1990), who expanded the principles of behaviorism and also brought them to the attention of the general public. Skinner (Figure 1.7) used the ideas of stimulus and response along with the application of rewards orreinforcement, to train pigeons and other animals. And he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create peaceful and productive societies. Skinner even developed a method for studying thoughts and feelings using the behaviorist approach (Skinner, 1957, 1972).

    Research focus: Do we have free will?

    The behavioral research program had important implications for fundamental questions about nature and nurture and about free will. Regarding the nature-nurture debate, behaviorists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are uniquely shaped by our environment. They also argued that there is no such thing as free will, rather that our behavior is determined by events we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are much like puppets in a show, unaware that they are being controlled by other humans. Even though we do not cause our own actions, we believe that we do because we are not aware of all the influences acting on our behavior.

    Recent research in psychology has suggested that Skinner and the behaviorists may have been right, at least in the sense that we overestimate our own free will to respond to events around us (Libet, 1985; Matsuhashi & Hallett, 2008; Wegner, 2002). ). ). In a demonstration of the misconception of our own free will, neuroscientists Soon, Brass, Heinze, and Haynes (2008) placed their research participants in afunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)brain scan while you are presented with a series of letters on a computer screen. The texts on the screen changed every half a second. Participants were asked, when they chose, to press one of the two buttons. They were then asked to indicate which letter appeared on the screen when they decided to press the button. The researchers analyzed the brain images to see if they could predict which of the two buttons the participant would press, even before the letter in which they had indicated the decision to press a button. Suggesting that the intention to act arose in the brain before the research participants were aware of it, the researchers found that the prefrontal cortex region of the brain showed activation that could be used to predict which button was pressed up to 10 seconds before participants said they had decided which button to press.

    Research has found that we are more likely to believe that we control our behavior when the desire to act occurs immediately before the outcome, when the thought is consistent with the outcome, and when there are no other apparent causes for the behavior. Aarts, Custers, and Wegner (2005) asked their research participants to control a rapidly moving square along with a computer that also controlled the square independently. Participants pressed a button to stop the movement. When participants were exposed to words related to the square just before they stopped its motion, they became more likely to believe they were in control of the motion, even when it was actually the computer that stopped it. And Dijksterhuis, Preston, Wegner, and Aarts (2008) found that participants who had just been exposed to first-person singular pronouns such as “I” and “my” were more likely to believe that they had control over their actions than people. that he had seen the words "computer" or "God". The idea that we are more likely to take ownership of our actions in some cases than others is also seen in our attributions for success and failure. Because we usually expect our behavior to be successful when we are successful, we easily believe that success is the result of our free will. When an action fails, on the other hand, we are less likely to perceive this outcome as the result of our free will, and more likely to blame the outcome on luck or our teacher (Wegner, 2003).

    Behaviorists made significant contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviorists were wrong in their belief that thoughts and feelings could not be measured, their insights provided new insights that helped improve our understanding of the nature-nurture debate and the issue of free will. The ideas of behaviorism are central to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of past experience in a variety of areas of psychology.

    The cognitive approach and cognitive neuroscience

    Science is always influenced by the technology that surrounds it, and psychology is no exception. It is therefore not surprising that from the 1960s an increasing number of psychologists began to think about the brain and human behavior in terms of the computer that was being developed and available to the public at the time. The analogy between the brain and the computer, while by no means perfect, provided part of the impetus for a new school of psychology calledcognitive psychology.cognitive psychologyesa field of psychology that studies mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment. These actions correspond well to the processes performed by computers. Although cognitive psychology began in earnest in the 1960s, earlier psychologists had also taken a cognitive orientation. Some of the important contributors to cognitive psychology include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909), who studied people's ability to remember lists of words under different conditions, and the English psychologist Sir Frederic Bartlett (1886–1969), who studied the cognitive. and social memory processes. Bartlett created short stories that were somewhat logical, but also contained some very unusual and unexpected events. Bartlett found that people had great difficulty remembering the stories accurately, even after being allowed to study them repeatedly, and hypothesized that the stories were difficult to remember because they did not match participants' expectations to how the stories should be. The idea that our memory is influenced by what we already know was also an important idea behind the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) model of stages of cognitive development. Other important cognitive psychologists include Donald E. Broadbent (1926–1993), Daniel Kahneman (1934–), George Miller (1920–2012), Eleanor Rosch (1938–), and Amos Tversky (1937–1996).

    the ghost war

    the ghost waris a story that was used by Sir Frederic Bartlett to test the influence of prior expectations on memory. Bartlett found that even when the participants in his British research were allowed to read the story many times, they still could not remember it well, and he believed this was because it did not match their prior knowledge. One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt for seals, and while they were there it became misty and quiet. Then they heard war cries and thought, "Perhaps this is a war party." They fled to the shore and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of oars, and saw a canoe coming towards them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said, "What do you think? We want to take you with us. We are going up the river to make war on the people." One of the young men said, "I have no arrows." "Arrows are in the canoe," they said. "I will not go with you. Could be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you," he said, turning to the other, "you can go with them. So one of the young men left, but the other came home. And the warriors continued up the river to a village on the other side of Kalama. The people went into the water and began to fight, and many died. But then the young man heard one of the warriors say, "Let us go home quickly: that Indian has been wounded." Now he thought, "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel ill, but they said he had been shot. Then the canoes returned to Egulac , and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told it to all, saying, "Behold, I went with the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our comrades were killed and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said they beat me and that I didn't feel bad'. He told everything and then he was silent. As the sun rose, it set. Something black came out of his mouth. His face twisted. People jumped and cried. He was dead. (Bartlett, 1932)

    (Video) History of Psychology | Psychology

    In its argument that our thinking has a strong influence on behavior, the cognitive approach provided a distinct alternative to behaviorism. According to cognitive psychologists, it will never be enough to ignore the mind itself because people interpret the stimuli they experience. For example, when a guy approaches a girl on a date and says, "You're so beautiful," a behaviorist would likely view this as a reinforcing (positive) stimulus. And yet the girl might not be so easily fooled. She may be trying to understand why the child is making this particular statement at this particular time and wondering if he might be trying to influence her through the comment. Cognitive psychologists argue that when we take into account how stimuli are evaluated and interpreted, we understand behavior more deeply. Cognitive psychology remains hugely influential today, guiding research in areas as diverse as language, problem solving, memory, intelligence, education, human development, social psychology, and psychotherapy. The cognitive revolution has become even more vivid in the last decade as a result of recent advances in our ability to see the brain in action usingneuroimagingtechniquesNeuroimagingesthe use of various techniques to provide images of the structure and function of the living brain(Ilardi & Feldman, 2001). These images are used to diagnose brain disease and injury, but they also allow researchers to see information processing as it occurs in the brain, because the processing causes the involved area of ​​the brain to increase metabolism and show up on the scan. We have already discussed the use of a neuroimaging technique, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in research focus earlier in this section, and we will discuss the use of neuroimaging techniques in many areas of psychology in the following chapters.

    Sociocultural psychology

    A final school which requires a higher level of analysis and which has had a significant impact on psychology can be broadly referred to associocultural approach. Field offsociocultural psychologyesthe study of how social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior. Sociocultural psychologists are particularly concerned with how people perceive themselves and others, and how people influence the behavior of others. For example, social psychologists have found that we are attracted to others who are similar to us in terms of attitudes and interests (Byrne, 1969), that we develop our own beliefs and attitudes by comparing our opinions with those of others (Festinger, 1954) ). ),alsowe often change our beliefs and behaviors to suit those we care about-a process known asconformity. An important aspect of sociocultural psychology issocial normsthe ways of thinking, feeling or behaving that are shared by group members and perceived by them as appropriate(Asch, 1952; Cialdini, 1993). Norms include customs, traditions, standards and rules, as well as the general values ​​of the group. Many of the most important social norms are determined byculturewhere we live and these cultures are studied byintercultural psychologists. INculturerepresentthe common set of social norms, including religious and family values ​​and other moral beliefs, shared by people living in a geographic region(Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, & Nisbett, 1998; Markus, Kitayama, & Heiman, 1996; Matsumoto, 2001). Cultures affect every aspect of our lives, and it is not inappropriate to say that our culture defines our lives as much as our evolutionary experience (Mesoudi, 2009). Psychologists have found that there is a fundamental difference in social norms between Western cultures (including those in Canada, the United States, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand) and East Asian cultures (including those in China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia). Norms in Western cultures are primarily oriented towardindividualism, which is aboutValuing oneself and one's own independence from others.. Children in Western cultures are taught to develop and value a sense of self and to a large extent see themselves as separate from the other people around them. Children in Western cultures feel special about themselves; they enjoy earning gold stars on their projects and valedictorian grades. Adults in Western cultures are geared to promote their own individual success, often in comparison to (or even at the expense of) others. Norms in East Asian culture, on the other hand, are oriented toward interdependence orcollectivism. In these cultures children are taught toFocus on developing harmonious social relationships with others.The prevailing norms relate to group cohesion and affiliation, and duty and responsibility towards family and other groups. When asked to describe themselves, members of East Asian cultures are more likely than those of Western cultures to indicate that they are particularly concerned with the interests of others, including their close friends and colleagues (Figure 1.8, “East versus West” ). .

    1.3: The development of psychology: history, approaches and questions (8)

    Figure 1.8 East vs. West. In Western cultures, social norms promote a focus on oneself (individualism), while in Eastern cultures, one focuses more on families and social groups (collectivism).

    Another important cultural difference is the extent to which people from different cultures are subject to social norms and customs, rather than being free to express their own individuality without regard to social norms (Chan, Gelfand, Triandis, & Tzeng, 1996). Cultures also differ in terms of personal space, such as how close individuals stand when speaking, as well as the communication styles they employ. Being aware of cultures and cultural differences is important because people of different cultural backgrounds are increasingly coming into contact with each other as a result of increased travel and immigration and the development of the Internet and other forms of communication. In Canada, for example, there are many different ethnic groups, and the proportion of the population that comes from minority groups (non-white) is increasing year by year. The sociocultural approach to understanding behavior reminds us again of the difficulty in making broad generalizations about human nature. Different people experience things differently, and they experience things differently in different cultures.

    The many disciplines of psychology

    Psychology is not a discipline, but a collection of many sub-disciplines that share at least some common approaches and that work together and exchange knowledge to form a coherent discipline (Yang & Chiu, 2009). Because the field of psychology is so broad, students may wonder which fields are best suited to their interests and what types of careers may be available to them. Table 1.5, "Some Career Paths in Psychology," will help you consider the answers to these questions. You can learn more about these different fields of psychology and the careers associated with them athttp://www.psyccareers.com/.

    Table 1.5 Some professional courses in psychology.
    the field of psychology Description Professional opportunities
    biopsychology and neuroscience This field examines the physiological basis of behavior in animals and humans by studying the function of different areas of the brain and the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on behavior. Most biopsychologists work in research settings, such as universities, for the federal government, and in private research laboratories.
    Clinical and counseling psychology. These are the major areas of psychology. The focus is on investigation, diagnosis, causes and treatment of mental disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists provide therapy to patients with the goal of improving their life experiences. They work in hospitals, schools, social agencies and private practice. Because the demand for this degree is high, admission to academic programs is highly competitive.
    cognitive psychology This field uses sophisticated research methods, including reaction time and brain imaging, to study memory, language, and thinking in humans. Cognitive psychologists work primarily in research settings, although some (such as those specializing in human-computer interactions) consult for businesses.
    developmental psychology These psychologists research the cognitive, emotional and social changes that occur throughout life. Many work in research settings, although others work in schools and community agencies to help improve and evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs such as Head Start.
    Forensic Psychology Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to understand the behavior of judges, lawyers, court juries, and others in the criminal justice system. Forensic psychologists work in the criminal justice system. They can testify in court and can provide information about the reliability of eyewitness testimony and jury selection.
    psychological health Health psychologists are concerned with understanding how biology, behavior and the social situation affect health and disease. Health psychologists work with medical professionals in clinical settings to promote better health, conduct research and teach at universities.
    Industrial-organizational and environmental psychology Industrial-organizational psychology applies psychology to the workplace with the goal of improving employee performance and well-being. There is a wide range of career opportunities in these fields, usually working in companies. These psychologists help select employees, evaluate employee performance, and examine the effects of various work conditions on behavior. They may also work to design equipment and environments that improve employee performance and reduce accidents.
    personality psychology These psychologists study people and the differences between them. The goal is to develop theories that explain individuals' psychological processes and focus on individual differences. Most work in academic settings, but the skills of personality psychologists are also in demand in business, for example in advertising and marketing. PhD programs in personality psychology are often associated with programs in social psychology.
    School and educational psychology. This field studies how people learn in school, the effectiveness of school programs, and the psychology of teaching. School psychologists work in elementary and high schools or in school district offices with students, teachers, parents, and administrators. They can assess children's psychological and learning problems and develop programs to minimize the impact of these problems.
    Social and cross-cultural psychology This field examines the interaction of humans with other humans. Topics of study include conformity, group behavior, leadership, attitudes and personal perception. Many social psychologists work in marketing, advertising, organization, system design, and other areas of applied psychology.
    sports psychology This field studies the psychological aspects of sports behavior. The goal is to understand the psychological factors that influence athletic performance, including the role of exercise and team interactions. Sports psychologists work in gyms, schools, professional sports teams and other areas where sports are played.

    Psychology in everyday life: how to learn and remember effectively

    One way in which psychological research findings can be particularly useful to you is in improving your learning and study skills. Psychological research has provided a significant amount of insight into the principles of learning and memory. This information can help you perform better in this and other courses, and can also help you better learn new concepts and techniques in other areas of your life. The most important thing you can learn in college is how to better study, learn, and remember. These skills will help you throughout your life as you learn new jobs and take on other tasks. There are significant individual differences in learning and memory, such that some people learn faster than others. But even if it takes you longer to learn than you think it should, the extra time you spend studying is worth it. And you can learn to learn: Learning to study effectively and remember information is just like learning any other skill, like playing a sport or a video game.

    To learn well, you must be ready to learn. You cannot study well when you are tired, stressed or abusing alcohol or drugs. Try to maintain a consistent sleeping and eating routine. Eat moderately and nutritiously, and avoid substances that can affect memory, especially alcohol. There is no evidence that stimulants like caffeine, amphetamines, or any of the many "memory enhancing drugs" on the market help you learn (Gold, Cahill, & Wenk, 2002; McDaniel, Maier, & Einstein, 2002). Memory supplements are generally no more effective than drinking a can of sugary soda, which releases glucose and therefore slightly improves memory.

    Psychologists have studied the ways that best allow people to acquire new information, retain it over time, and retrieve information that has been stored in our memory. An important discovery is that learning is an active process. To obtain information most effectively, we must actively manipulate it. An active approach is repetition: repeating the information to be learned over and over again. Although simple repetition helps us learn, psychological research has found that we acquire information more effectively when we actively think about or elaborate on its meaning and relate the material to something else. When you study, try to expand by connecting the information to other things you already know. For example, if you want to remember the different schools of psychology, try to think about how each approach differs from the others. When comparing the approaches, determine what is most important about each and then relate this to the characteristics of the other approaches.

    In a larger study demonstrating the effectiveness of elaborative encoding, Rogers, Kuiper, and Kirker (1977) found that students learned information better when they related it to aspects of themselves (a phenomenon known asself-reference effect). This research suggests that imagining how the material relates to your own interests and goals will help you learn it. An approach known asloci metodeit involves associating each piece of information you need to remember with places you are familiar with. You might think of the house you grew up in and the rooms in it. You could put the behaviorists in the bedroom, the structuralists in the living room and the functionalists in the kitchen. Then, when you need to recall the information, you will retrieve the mental image of your house and you should be able to "see" each person in each area.

    One of the most basic principles of learning is known asdistance effect. Both humans and animals remember or learn material more easily when they study the material in several shorter study periods over a longer period of time, rather than studying it only once over a longer period of time. Studying for a test is a particularly inefficient way to learn. Psychologists have also found that performance improves when people set difficult but realistic goals for themselves (Locke & Latham, 2006). You can use this knowledge to learn. Set realistic goals for how much time you want to spend studying and what you want to learn, and try to stick to those goals. Do a small amount every day and by the end of the week you will have achieved a lot.

    Our ability to adequately assess our own knowledge is known asmetakognition. Research suggests that our metacognition can make us overconfident, making us think we've learned material even when we haven't. To counteract this problem, don't review your notes over and over again. Instead, make a list of questions and see if you can answer them. Study the information again and test yourself again after a few minutes. If you made a mistake, read again. Then wait half an hour and test yourself again. Then test again after one day and after two days. Testing yourself by actively trying to retrieve information is better than just studying the material because it will help you determine if you really know it. In short, everyone can learn to learn better. Learning is an important skill and following the guidelines mentioned above will likely help you learn better.

    key takeaways

    • The first psychologists were philosophers, but the field became more empirical and objective as more sophisticated scientific approaches were developed and applied.
    • Some basic questions asked by psychologists include those about nature vs. sustenance, free will vs. determinism, precision vs. inaccuracy and deliberate vs. unconscious processing.
    • The structuralists tried to analyze the nature of consciousness by means of introspection.
    • Functionalists based their ideas on Darwin's work, and their approaches led to the field of evolutionary psychology.
    • Behaviorists explained behavior in terms of stimulus, response, and reinforcement, while denying the presence of free will.
    • Cognitive psychologists study how people perceive, process and remember information.
    • Psychodynamic psychology focuses on unconscious drives and the potential to improve lives through psychoanalysis and psychotherapy.
    • The sociocultural approach focuses on the social situation, including how cultures and social norms influence our behaviour.

    Exercises and critical thinking

    1. What kinds of questions can psychologists answer that philosophers may not be able to answer as completely or precisely? Explain why you think psychologists can answer these questions better than philosophers.
    2. Choose one of the big questions in psychology and provide some evidence from your own experience that supports one side or the other.
    3. Choose two of the psychological fields discussed in this section and explain how they differ in their approaches to understanding behavior and the level of explanation they focus on.


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    (Video) 1-3: History of Psychology

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    Byrne, D. (1969). Attitudes and attraction. In L. Berkowitz (ed.),Advances is experimental social psychology(Bind 4, s. 35–89). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    Chan, D.K.S., Gelfand, M.J., Triandis, H.C. & Tzeng, O. (1996). Stress-Slack revised: Some preliminary analyzes in Japan and the United States.International Journal of Psychology, 31, 1-12.

    Cialdini, R.B. (1993).Impact: science and practice(3rd edition). New York, NY: Harper Collins College.

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    Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.Human relations, 7, 117-140.

    Fiske, ST (2003).social beings.... Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

    Fiske, A., Kitayama, S., Markus, H. & Nisbett, R. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske and G. Lindzey (eds.),the handbook of social psychology(4th ed., pp. 915-981). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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    (Video) Intro to Psychology: Crash Course Psychology #1

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    image attributions

    Figure 1.2: https://twitter.com/sureteduquebec/s...732096/photo/1

    Figure 1.3: Plato's picture(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platon2.jpg.) courtesy ofBust of Aristotle by Giovanni Dall'Orto, (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...lazzo_Altaemps, _Roma._Foto_di_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto.jpg) used under license CC BY.

    Figure 1.4:Wundt Research Group af Kenosis, (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...arch-group.jpg) is in the public domain; Edward B. Titchener (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ed..._Titchener.jpg) is in the public domain.

    Figure 1.5: William James(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...hilosopher.jpg).charles darwinby George Richmond (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...._Richmond.jpg) is in the public domain.

    Figure 1.6: Sigmund Freudaf Max Halberstadt (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...Freud_LIFE.jpg) is in the public domain.

    Figure 1.7: BF Skinner at Harvard around 1950(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi..._Harvard_circa_1950.jpg) used under a CC BY 3.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en).

    Figure 1.8:West Wittering Wonderful as always" bygareth williams(http://www.flickr.com/photos/gareth1953/7976359044/) is licensed underCC POR 2.0. “Family playing a board gameby Bill Branson (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...d_game_(3).jpg) Are youpublic domain.

    Contributors and attributions

    (Video) Introduction | Problems in writing the history of Psychology | Why study the history of Psychology?


    What is the history and development of the study of psychology? ›

    Psychology as a field of experimental study began in 1854 in Leipzig, Germany when Gustav Fechner created the first theory of how judgments about sensory experiences are made and how to experiment on them.

    What are the 5 historical approaches to studying psychology? ›

    Eventually, the studies began to look at the same human behaviors from various angles including biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic perspectives. These became known as the “five major perspectives” in psychology.

    What are the 7 approaches to psychology? ›

    There are several major contemporary approaches to psychology (behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic, evolutionary, biological, humanistic, sociocultural/contextual).

    What are the 4 approaches to psychology? ›

    These are biological, psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive and humanistic. Each approach attempts to explain human behaviour differently.

    Why is studying the history of psychology important? ›

    Psychology history also demonstrates how the field began and developed in response to modern culture, politics, economics and current events.

    What is the main focus of development psychology the study of? ›

    Developmental psychologists focus on human growth and changes across the lifespan, including physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality and emotional growth.

    What are the 8 approaches to psychology? ›

    At this point in modern psychology, the varying viewpoints on human behavior have been split into eight different perspectives: biological, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, psychodynamic, sociocultural, evolutionary, and biopsychosocial.

    What are the 3 approaches to psychology? ›

    Explanation of approaches in psychology, including behaviorism, cognitive and psychodynamic approaches, and biological approaches. Psychologists take different approaches, or perspectives, when attempting to understand human behavior.

    What is the most used approach in psychology? ›

    1. The Psychodynamic Perspective. The psychodynamic perspective originated with the work of Sigmund Freud. This view of psychology and human behavior emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior, as well as to treat mental illnesses.

    What are the 6 approach to psychology? ›

    The 6 main psychological perspectives in psychology are: Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Psychodynamic, Evolutionary, and Humanistic.

    What are the big 6 psychology? ›

    The six factors, or dimensions, include Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness to Experience (O). Each factor is composed of traits with characteristics indicating high and low levels of the factor.

    What are the 6 areas of psychology? ›

    A clinical psychologist concentrates on the intellectual, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human performance throughout a person's life, across varying cultures and socioeconomic levels.

    What are psychology theories? ›

    Psychological theories are systems of ideas that can explain certain aspects of human thoughts, behaviors and emotions. Psychology researchers create these theories to make predictions for future human behaviors or events that may take place if certain behaviors exist.

    What is the most important idea in the history of psychology? ›

    One of the most influential schools of thought within psychology's history was behaviorism. Behaviorism focused on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes.

    What is the relationship between psychology and history? ›

    Historical psychology claims that the mind has a history, that is, that our ways of thinking, reasoning, perceiving, feeling, and acting are not necessarily universal or invariable, but are instead subject to modifications over time and space.

    How does psychology connect to history? ›

    Understanding present-day psychology requires understanding the past processes, environments, and constraints that led to that psychology. Thus, for psychology to develop a full theoretical understanding of human behavior (Muthukrishna & Henrich 2019), psychology needs to also be a historical science.

    What is an example of psychological development? ›

    Children learn from interacting with others, especially their parents. For example, reproducing the emotions that others express is part of that. Copying facial expressions is one of the great milestones in the social development of a child.

    What are the 3 major issues in developmental psychology? ›

    Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life. This field examines change across three major dimensions, which are physical development, cognitive development, and social emotional development.

    What are the major development in psychology? ›

    What are 3 major developmental psychology issues? The three major developmental psychology issues are focused on physical development, cognitive development, and emotional development.

    Who is the father of psychology? ›

    Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832–1920) is known to posterity as the “father of experimental psychology” and the founder of the first psychology laboratory (Boring 1950: 317, 322, 344–5), whence he exerted enormous influence on the development of psychology as a discipline, especially in the United States.

    How does research occur in psychology? ›

    Psychologists employ the scientific method — stating the question, offering a theory and then constructing rigorous laboratory or field experiments to test the hypothesis. Psychologists apply the understanding gleaned through research to create evidence-based strategies that solve problems and improve lives.

    How many theories are there in psychology? ›

    What are the five theories of psychology? The five major theories of psychology are behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, and biological.

    What is the behavioral approach in psychology? ›

    What is the behavioral theory of learning? Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning that states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. Thus, behavior is simply a response to environmental stimuli.

    What is behavioral approach? ›

    The behavioral approach suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and external stimuli in the environment. Behaviorism is a theory of learning, and learning theories focus on how we are conditioned to respond to events or stimuli.

    What is a cognitive approach in psychology? ›

    Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology dedicated to studying how people think. The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how the interactions of thinking, emotion, creativity, and problem-solving abilities affect how and why you think the way you do.

    What are the 3 grand theories? ›

    Grand theories: These are theories such as psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory which are a powerful framework for interpreting and understanding change and development of all individuals.

    What is approach strategy in psychology? ›

    Approach strategies may be cognitive in nature (e.g., trying to see the positive side of the situation, considering several alternatives for handling the situation) or behavioral (e.g., trying to find out more about the situation, seeking help from other people who have had similar experiences, praying for guidance, ...

    What are the theories of personality? ›

    The Six Different Theories About Personality

    In describing personality, we'll go through six different personality theories: psychoanalytic theory, humanistic theory, trait theory, social-cognitive theory, biological theory, and behaviorist theory.

    Are there 6 goals of psychology? ›

    Psychology, as science has basically the following main aims or goals: understand, predict, describe, influence, and control behavior, and improve the quality of life.

    Is behavior a psychological? ›

    Behavioral psychology, or behaviorism, is a theory suggesting that environment shapes human behavior. In a most basic sense, behavioral psychology is the study and analysis of observable behavior. This field of psychology influenced thought heavily throughout the middle of the 20th century.

    What are the 10 types of human behavior? ›

    The ten “types” are the Perceiver of Pain, the Ostraciser, the Tamer of Terror, the Beholder, the Aggressor, the Tribalist, the Nurturer, the Romancer, the Rescuer and the Kinsman.

    What are the elements of psychology? ›

    Id, Ego and Super-ego: The Three Elements of Psychology.

    What is a real life example of psychology? ›

    Psychology also impacts how we think and act about our diet and exercise. For example, a study in Psychological Science demonstrates that people under stress tend to eat high-calorie foods. Individuals who think in a “live for today” mindset ate 40 percent more calories than the control group.

    What led to the development of psychology? ›

    Psychology began as a result of curiosity of cosmologists to understand about the mystic experiences and activities of people and events. These include their experiences in life, dreams, materialistic life, the urges they have and peculiarities in behaviours of people in different situations.

    What is psychology definition and development? ›

    psychological development, the development of human beings' cognitive, emotional, intellectual, and social capabilities and functioning over the course of a normal life span, from infancy through old age. It is the subject matter of the discipline known as developmental psychology.

    What is the first history of psychology? ›

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) was a German scientist who was the first person to be referred to as a psychologist. His famous book entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology was published in 1873.

    What is the origin and development of modern psychology? ›

    Some say that modern psychology was born in the 18th century, which is largely due to William Battie's "Treatise on Madness," published in 1758. 2 Others consider the mid-19th century experiments conducted in Hermann von Helmholtz's lab to be the origin of modern psychology.

    What influences psychological development? ›

    the conditions and variables that influence emotional, intellectual, social, and physical development from conception to maturity. Examples include parental attitudes and stimulation, peer relationships, learning experiences, recreational activities, and hereditary predispositions.

    What are the major influences on human development in psychology? ›

    Genetics influences the speed and way in which people develop, though other factors, such as parenting, education, experiences, and socioeconomic factors, are also at play. The multiple genetic factors that affect human growth and development include genetic interactions and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    What is an example of development in psychology? ›

    What is an example of developmental psychology? An example of developmental psychology would be the identification of a developmental delay in a child's ability to speak and speech pathology intervention.

    What best describes developmental psychology? ›

    Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why humans grow, change, and adapt across the course of their lives. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan.

    What is the summary of psychology? ›

    Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychologists are actively involved in studying and understanding mental processes, brain functions, and behavior.

    What is the history of psychology today? ›

    Psychology Today, American general-interest psychology magazine. It was founded in 1967 in Del Mar, Calif., by psychologist Nicholas Charney. Charney began Psychology Today because he was frustrated with psychologists whose use of professional jargon made their work inaccessible to the general public.

    Who created psychology? ›

    Wilhelm Wundt was a German psychologist who established the very first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. This event is widely recognized as the formal establishment of psychology as a science distinct from biology and philosophy.

    What are the two roots of psychology? ›

    Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of: Philosophy and chemistry.

    What is the root origin of psychology? ›

    “The word psychology was formed by combining the Greek psychē (meaning “breath, principle of life, life, soul”) with –logia (which comes from the Greek logos, meaning “speech, word, reason”).

    What is psychology origin? ›

    The word psychology derives from the Greek word psyche, for spirit or soul. The latter part of the word "psychology" derives from -λογία -logia, which refers to "study" or "research".

    Who was the first modern psychology? ›

    Wilhelm Wundt is considered by many to be the founder of modern psychology. Wundt is known for his groundbreaking work in the areas of structuralism, introspection, and laboratory methods, as well as his contributions to the philosophy of mind.


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